In the context of chronic coronary syndromes (CCS), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has gained broad acceptance as a noninvasive anatomical imaging tool with ability of excluding coronary stenosis with strong negative predictive value. Atherosclerotic plaque lesions are independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in high risk patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD). Calcium detection is commonly expressed through the coronary artery calcium score (CACS), but further research is warranted to confirm the powerness of a CACS-only strategy in both diagnosis and prognosis assessment. Recent studies evidence how defined plaque composition characteristics effectively relate to the risk of plaque instabilization and the overall ischemic burden. Fractional flow reserve from CCTA (FFR-CT) has been demonstrated as a reliable method for noninvasive functional evaluation of coronary lesions severity, while the assessment of perfusion imaging under stress conditions is growing as a useful tool for assessment of myocardial ischemia. Moreover, specific applications in procedural planning of transcatheter valve substitution and follow-up of heart transplantation have gained recent importance. This review illustrates the incremental role of CCTA, which can potentially revolutionize the diagnosis and management pathway within the wide clinical spectrum of CCS.