Renin-angiotensin system promotes sodium and chloride retention, participates in the defense response to hypovolemia and, in congestive heart failure, contributes to edema formation and progression of the disease. We investigated whether ACE-inhibitors interfere with the action of the renin-angiotensin system on the nephron, and therefore with water and urinary electrolytes excretion. The interaction among renin-angiotensin system, diuretic treatment and urinary electrolytes was evaluated both during chronic treatment and in response to acute renin-angiotensin system activation as that observed after extracorporeal ultrafiltration-induced transient hypovolemia. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone, body fluid balance and urinary sodium, chloride and potassium concentrations were evaluated in 30 patients with congestive heart failure in NYHA II-III functional class, grouped according to whether long-term therapy did not include (Group I, n = 15) or included (Group II, n = 18) ACE-inhibitors. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a single session of extracorporeal ultrafiltration. At baseline, urinary output and urinary sodium and chloride concentrations were similar in the two groups, while urinary potassium concentration was lower in patients assuming ACE-inhibitors (Group II). Plasma renin activity was higher and aldosterone was lower in Group II than in Group I. After removal of similar amounts of plasma water by extracorporeal ultrafiltration, body weight decreased in both groups but the decrease was maintained in the following days only in Group II patients. A transient reduction (48 hours) of both plasma volume and urinary output was observed after ultrafiltration in both groups. Despite plasma renin activity and aldosterone increase, urinary electrolytes response to ultrafiltration was different in the two groups: sodium and chloride were reduced, and potassium did not change in Group 1 while, in Group II, sodium and chloride did not change and potassium excretion was significantly increased. In conclusion, chronic treatment with ACE-inhibitors does not enhance the excretion of sodium in congestive heart failure but just mitigates potassium loss. The role of these drugs becomes particularly relevant during acute renin-angiotensin system activation due to hypovolemia; in this setting ACE-inhibitors counteract sodium and chloride retention resulting in a potential hazard due to interference with the defence mechanisms toward hypovolemia, and an amplification of extracorporeal ultrafiltration efficacy by preventing edema recovery after its mechanical removal.
|Translated title of the contribution||The influence of ACE inhibitors on urinary electrolyte secretion and the response to transitory hypovolemia in chronic heart failure|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1997|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine