The influence of sex on left ventricular remodeling in arterial hypertension

Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Hypertension represents one of the most important and most frequent cardiovascular risk factors responsible for heart failure (HF) development. Both sexes are equally affected by arterial hypertension. The difference is lying in the fact that prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension-induced target organ damage varies during lifetime due to substantial variation of sex hormones in women. Left ventricular (LV) structural, functional, and mechanical changes induced by hypertension are well-known complications that occur in both sexes and they are responsible for HF development. However, their prevalence is significantly different between women and men, which could potentially explain the variation in HF occurrence and prognosis between the sexes. Studies have shown that the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy is higher in men. The data are not consistent regarding LV diastolic dysfunction and a similar report has been given for LV mechanical changes. Most investigations agree that LV longitudinal strain is lower among hypertensive men. However, even in the healthy population, men have lower LV longitudinal strain and the cutoff values are still missing. Therefore, it would be difficult to draw the conclusion that LV mechanical dysfunction is more prevalent among men. The main mechanisms responsible for sex-related LV remodeling are sex hormones and their influence on biohumoral systems. This review provides an updated overview of the available data about sex-related LV remodeling, as well as potential mechanisms for these changes, in the patients with arterial hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)905-914
Number of pages10
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2019


  • Arterial hypertension
  • Diastolic function
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy
  • Pathophysiology
  • Sex
  • Strain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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