The interferon-stimulated gene TRIM22: A double-edged sword in HIV-1 infection

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Infection of target cells by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is hampered by constitutively expressed host cell proteins preventing or curtailing virus replication and therefore defined as “restriction factors”. Among them, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have emerged as important players endowed with both antiviral effects and modulatory capacity of the innate immune response. TRIM5α and TRIM19 (i.e. promyelocytic leukemia, PML) are among the best-characterized family members; however, in this review we will focus on the potential role of another family member, i.e. TRIM22, a factor strongly induced by interferon stimulation, in HIV infection in vivo and in vitro in the context of its broader antiviral effects. We will also focus on the potential role of TRIM22 in HIV-1-infected individuals speculating on its dual role in controlling virus replication and more complex role in chronic infection. At the molecular levels, we will review the evidence in favor of a relevant role of TRIM22 as epigenetic inhibitor of HIV-1 transcription acting by preventing the binding of the host cell transcription factor Sp1 to the viral promoter. These evidences suggest that TRIM22 should be considered a potential new player in either the establishment or maintenance of HIV-1 reservoirs of latently infected cells unaffected by combination antiretroviral therapy. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-47
Number of pages8
JournalCytokine and Growth Factor Reviews
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018


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