Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have aroused increasing interest not only in mechanistic studies of metastasis, but also for translational applications, such as patient monitoring, treatment choice, and treatment change due to tumor resistance. In this review, we will assess the state of the art about the study of the interactions between CTCs and the immune system. We intend to analyze the impact that the cells of the immune system have in limiting or promoting the metastatic capability of CTCs. To this purpose, we will examine studies that correlate CTCs, immune cells, and patient prognosis, and we will also discuss relevant animal models that have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of immune-mediated metastasis. We will then consider some studies in which CTCs seem to play a promising role in monitoring cancer patients during immunotherapy regimens. We believe that, from an accurate and profound knowledge of the interactions between CTCs and the immune system, new immunotherapeutic strategies against cancer might emerge in the future.