The interplay between the antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus

Angela Tincani, Laura Andreoli, Cecilia Chighizola, Pier Luigi Meroni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) was firstly described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but it was recognized also as a primary APS (PAPS) form. These forms are not always distinguishable, since they show some common clinical/serological manifestations. We actually may deal with: (1) patients initially classified as PAPS gradually developing SLE; (2) patients with SLE and associated APS, whose complications generally affect morbidity and mortality; (3) patients with SLE and positive antiphospholipid antibodies without APS manifestations; the relevant issue in such patients is to provide effective prophylaxis. The close relationship between PAPS and SLE is also supported by: (i) nuclear autoimmunity and (ii) complement activation at least in animal models of APS. Future studies on the genetic background and/or on regulatory suppressive mechanisms may clarify how and why PAPS can evolve into SLE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-259
Number of pages3
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • ANA
  • APL
  • Primary prophylaxis
  • SLE
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy


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