The intrinsically disordered E-domains regulate the IGF-1 prohormones stability, subcellular localisation and secretion

Giosuè Annibalini, Serena Contarelli, Mauro De Santi, Roberta Saltarelli, Laura Di Patria, Michele Guescini, Anna Villarini, Giorgio Brandi, Vilberto Stocchi, Elena Barbieri

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Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is synthesised as a prohormone (proIGF-1) requiring enzymatic activity to yield the mature IGF-1. Three proIGF-1s are encoded by alternatively spliced IGF-1 mRNAs: proIGF-1Ea, proIGF-1Eb and proIGF-1Ec. These proIGF-1s have a common IGF-1 mature sequence but different E-domains. The structure of the E-domains has not been resolved, and their molecular functions are still unclear. Here, we show that E-domains are Intrinsically Disordered Regions that have distinct regulatory functions on proIGF-1s production. In particular, we identified a highly conserved N-glycosylation site in the Ea-domain, which regulated intracellular proIGF-1Ea level preventing its proteasome-mediated degradation. The inhibition of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin or glucose starvation markedly reduced proIGF-1Ea and mature IGF-1 production. Interestingly, 2-deoxyglucose, a glucose and mannose analogue, increased proIGF-1Ea and mature IGF-1 levels, probably leading to an accumulation of an under-glycosylated proIGF-1Ea that was still stable and efficiently secreted. The proIGF-1Eb and proIGF-1Ec were devoid of N-glycosylation sites, and hence their production was unaffected by N-glycosylation inhibitors. Moreover, we demonstrated that alternative Eb- and Ec-domains controlled the subcellular localisation of proIGF-1s, leading to the nuclear accumulation of both proIGF-1Eb and proIGF-1Ec. Our results demonstrated that E-domains are regulatory elements that control IGF-1 production and secretion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8919
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 11 2018


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