OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to analyze the ALS disease progression and respiratory function of Italian patients treated with edaravone (EVN), as well as the adherence to, and the effects of, the therapy. METHODS: We performed an observational study of patients treated with EVN from May 2017 to May 2019, in 39 Italian ALS Centers. Taking into account ALS patients with at least 12 months of EVN treatment, we compared the decline of ALSFRS-R and FVC with a group of matched historical controls from the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database, using both descriptive and survival analysis approaches. RESULTS: A total of 331 ALS Italian patients treated with EVN and 290 matched historical controls were recruited in this study. No significant differences on disease progression or respiratory function were found comparing the two cohorts in both descriptive and survival analyses. The EVN treatment was overall well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that EVN treatment was well tolerated. No significant differences were reported in ALS patients treated and not treated with EVN, in terms of both disease progression and respiratory function. These findings prove that further studies are required to better clarify whether EVN could be considered an effective treatment for ALS disease.