The knee: Ligamentous tears

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In children and adolescents, the knee is exposed to bone, osteochondral, ligamentous, and capsular injuries secondary to direct or indirect trauma. In the last 20years, the observation of knee ligament injuries in children has increased. This may due to a wider, more intense, and earlier participation in competitive sports and/or an improvement in diagnostic accuracy achieved with MRI and arthroscopy. Clinical and instrumental diagnosis has been refined to individualize various degrees of medial and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) tears, helping to select patients requiring surgical therapy. The treatment for avulsion ligament injuries of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) was improved by the evolution of surgical arthroscopy. Moreover, particular attention was directed toward recognizing and treating complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Traditional conservative treatment for these ACL injuries in adolescents leads to anterior knee laxity and chronic instability, unlike in active mature patients. In recent years, attention has been placed on surgical treatment for ACL tears using various intra-articular techniques to reconstruct the ACL with tendon grafts fixed in both anatomic areas of insertion of the native ligament, but adapted for growing lower limbs. The goal is to provide an ACL reconstruction able to obtain good results from a biomechanical point of view without the risk of growth disturbances.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPediatric and Adolescent Sports Traumatology
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Milan
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9788847054127, 9788847054110
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2014



  • Adolescents
  • Knee
  • Ligamentous tears
  • Skeletally immature patients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Falciglia, F., Lazzaro, A. D., & Guzzanti, V. (2014). The knee: Ligamentous tears. In Pediatric and Adolescent Sports Traumatology (pp. 143-159). Springer-Verlag Milan.