The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a pivotal component of the innate immune system, in gout. Levels of PTX3 and IL-1β in human samples were evaluated by ELISA. Development of murine gout was evaluated through the levels of cytokines (PTX3, CXCL1, and IL-1β) and neutrophil recruitment into the joint cavity. Phagocytosis of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and caspase-1 activation were determined by flow cytometer. Acute gout patients showed elevated concentration of PTX3 in plasma and synovial fluid as compared with healthy and osteoarthritic subjects. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between intra-articular PTX3 and IL-1β levels. PTX3 was induced in the periarticular tissue of mice postinjection of MSU crystals. Importantly, Ptx3-deficient mice showed reduced inflammation in response to MSU crystal injection compared with wild-type mice, including reduction of neutrophil recruitment into the joint cavity and IL-1β and CXCL1 production. Interestingly, addition of PTX3 in vitro enhanced MSU crystal phagocytosis by monocytes and resulted in higher production of IL-1β by macrophages. This contribution of PTX3 to the phagocytosis of MSU crystals and consequent production of IL-1β occurred through a mechanism mainly dependent on FcγRIII. Thus, our results suggest that PTX3 acts as a humoral pattern recognition molecule in gout facilitating MSU crystal phagocytosis and contributing to the pathogenesis of gouty arthritis.
- Arthritis, Gouty/immunology
- C-Reactive Protein/immunology
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Serum Amyloid P-Component/immunology
- Uric Acid/immunology