The long pentraxin PTX3, a soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity, inflammation and female fertility

Cecilia Garlanda, Virginia Maina, Federica Moalli, Alessia Cotena, Livija Deban, Andrea Doni, Alessandro Montanelli, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Pentraxins are a family of evolutionarily conserved multifunctional pattern-recognition proteins characterized by a cyclic multimeric structure. Based on the primary structure of the subunit, the pentraxins are divided into two groups: short pentraxins and long pentraxins. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P-component (SAP) are the two short pentraxins. The prototype protein of the long pentraxin group is pentraxin 3 (PTX3). CRP and SAP are produced primarily in the liver in response to IL-6, while PTX3 is produced by a variety of tissues and cells and in particular, by innate immunity cells in response to proinflammatory signals and Toll-like receptor (TLR) engagement. PTX3 interacts with several ligands, including growth factors, extracellular matrix components and selected pathogens, playing a role in complement activation and facilitating pathogen recognition by phagocytes, acting as a predecessor of antibodies. In addition, PTX3 is essential in female fertility by acting as a nodal point for the assembly of the cumulus oophorus hyaluronan-rich extracellular matrix. Thus, the prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a multifunctional soluble pattern recognition receptor acting as a non-redundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and involved in tuning inflammation, in matrix deposition and female fertility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-329
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Immunology Reviews
Volume2
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2006

Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Innate immunity
  • Marker
  • Pentraxins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

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