The metabolic response to stress and infection in critically ill children: The opportunity of an individualized approach

Valentina De Cosmi, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Alessandra Mazzocchi, Veronica D’Oria, Marco Silano, Edoardo Calderini, Carlo Agostoni

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically‐ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the importance of blood glucose levels, the nutritional aspects of the different phases of acute stress response, and the reliability of the available tools to assess the energy expenditure. The dynamics of metabolism during stressful events reveals the difficult balance between risk of hypo‐ or hyperglycemia and under‐ or overfeeding. Within this context, individualized and accurate measurement of energy expenditure may help in defining the metabolic needs of patients. Given the variability of the metabolic response in critical conditions, randomized clinical studies in ill children are needed to evaluate the effect of individualized nutritional intervention on health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1032
JournalNutrients
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 18 2017

Keywords

  • Acute phase
  • Glycemic control
  • Indirect calorimetry
  • Intensive care
  • Ketosis
  • Nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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