The metabolic syndrome in heart failure: insights to specific mechanisms

Paola Gargiulo, Fabio Marsico, Francesco Renga, Simona Dell’Aversana, Immacolata Esposito, Caterina Marciano, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Pasquale Perrone-Filardi, Stefania Paolillo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The presence of comorbidities significantly influences long-term morbidity and mortality of symptomatic and asymptomatic heart failure (HF) patients. Metabolic syndrome and diabetic cardiomyopathy are two clinical conditions that share multiple pathophysiological mechanisms and that might be both responsible for cardiac dysfunction. However, it is argued whether metabolic syndrome (MS) independently increases HF risk or the association between MS and HF merely reflects the impact of individual risk factors included in its definition on HF development. Similarly, in the context of diabetic cardiomyopathy, many aspects are still challenging starting from the definition up to the therapeutic management. In this clinical review, we focused the attention on molecular pathways, myocyte alterations, and specific patterns of metabolic syndrome and diabetic cardiomyopathy in order to better define the potential diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of these two pathological conditions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • Heart failure
  • Insulin resistance
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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