OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of the most recent data concerning the involvement of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs) and vasculitides.
METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for articles using combinations of words or terms that included systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune myositis, Sjögren's syndrome, undifferentiated and mixed CTD, vasculitis, microbiota, microbiome, and dysbiosis. Papers from the reference lists of the articles and book chapters were reviewed, and relevant publications were identified. Abstracts and articles written in languages other than English were excluded.
RESULTS: We found some evidence that dysbiosis participates in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, but there are still few data concerning the role of dysbiosis in other CTDs or vasculitides.
CONCLUSIONS: Numerous studies suggest that alterations in human microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritides as a result of the aberrant activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. Only a few studies have explored the involvement of dysbiosis in other CTDs or vasculitides, and further research is needed.
- Journal Article