The minimal neuropsychological assessment of MS patients (MACFIMS): normative data of the Italian population

Paola Grossi, Emilio Portaccio, Fabio Bellomi, Valentina Bianchi, Sabina Cilia, Monica Falautano, Benedetta Goretti, Erika Pietrolongo, Rosa Gemma Viterbo, Michele Messmer Uccelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and research has emphasized the crucial role of cognitive assessment in disease monitoring. The minimal neuropsychological assessment of MS (MACFIMS) represents one of the neuropsychological batteries most widely used throughout the world. To date, a complete validation, as well as normative values of an alternative form, is lacking in the Italian population, limiting the use of this tool in longitudinal assessment. A total of 200 healthy subjects (127 females and 73 males) were recruited from the community in 8 Italian cities and were evaluated with the MACFIMS at baseline and reassessed with an alternate form of the same battery after 12 months. Regression-based norms that account for demographic influences on test performance were calculated at each time point (baseline and follow-up). The study provides, for the first time, normative values of two forms of the MACFIMS battery for the Italian population. Data application allows clinicians to monitor the performance of cognitive functions over time and to better understand the efficacy of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in clinical practice and research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1489-1496
Number of pages8
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2020


  • Cognitive impairment
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuropsychological battery
  • Normative data

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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