The multifaceted aspects of refractory lupus nephritis

Gabriella Moroni, Claudio Ponticelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The term refractory lupus nephritis is generally used to indicate cases that do not respond to traditional treatment. However, the clinical presentation of lupus nephritis is variable and the time to response depends on the typology of the underlying renal syndrome. The criteria and the time for response are different in lupus patients with nephritic flares, in those with nephrotic syndrome, and in those with asymptomatic renal disease. In this paper, we will focus on the clinical characteristics, the consequences, and the possible therapeutic approaches for patients with different forms of refractory lupus nephritis, defined on the basis of renal syndrome at presentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-288
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2015


  • lupus nephritis
  • nephritic flares
  • nephrotic syndrome
  • refractory nephritis
  • systemic lupus erythematosus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Medicine(all)


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