Background: Transcatheter cryoablation is a well-established technique for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) in children. Nevertheless, atrioventricular nodal slow-pathway conduction may recur after an acutely successful procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of acutely successful AVNRT cryoablations in pediatric patients in case of focal cryolesion and in case of need for High-Density Linear Lesion (HDLL) cryoablation due to focal failure. Methods: Sixty-nine consecutive pediatric patients (30 males, mean age 12.4 ± 3.2 years; range: 5.4-18.0 years) underwent 3D-guided cryoablation for AVNRT at our institution from July 2013 to November 2014. When a focal cryoablation was acutely unsuccessful, a 3D-guided HDLL was created delivering multiple overlapping cryolesions/cryoenergy applications from the ventricular side of the tricuspid annulus to the atrial side, including the site of focal cryoablation if transiently successful. Results: No permanent cryoablation-related complications occurred. Acute success rate was 98.5% (68 out of 69): in 55.9% (38 out of 68) with focal-lesion and in 44.1% (30 out of 68) with HDLL. Mean follow-up was 25.3 months and AVNRT recurrence rate was 13.2% (nine out of 68): 5.2% (two out of 38) with focal lesion and 23.3% (seven out of 30) with HDLL (P = 0.036). Conclusions: In cryoablation of AVNRT in children, the need for a more aggressive protocol (HDLL), due to the failure of focal ablation, is strictly related to higher recurrence rates. Indeed, AVNRT recurrences after cryoablation in children seem to be due to a larger and deeper substrate rather than due to the type of energy used.
- Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia
- Transcatheter cryoablation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine