Two general theories, i.e. 'the network theory of aging' (1989) and 'the remodeling theory of aging' (1995), as well as their implications, new developments, and perspectives are reviewed and discussed. Particular attention has been paid to illustrate: (i) how the network theory of aging fits with recent data on aging and longevity in unicellular organisms (yeast), multicellular organisms (worms), and mammals (mice and humans); (ii) the evolutionary and experimental basis of the remodeling theory of aging (immunological, genetic, and metabolic data in healthy centenarians, and studies on the evolution of the immune response, stress and inflammation) and its recent development (the concepts of 'immunological space' and 'inflamm-aging'); (iii) the profound relationship between these two theories and the data which suggest that aging and longevity are related, in a complex way, to the capability to cope with a variety of stressors. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.
- Aging theories
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