There is growing evidence that the complex clinical manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are not fully explained by the engorgement of the endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal system. In this review, we explore current knowledge of common pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the early onset of tissue abnormalities of two LSDs, Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII) and Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) diseases. In particular, perturbations of the homeostasis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cholesterol (Chol) in MPSII and NPC diseases, respectively, affect key biological processes, including morphogen signaling. Both GAGs and Chol finely regulate the release, reception and tissue distribution of Shh. Hence, not surprisingly, developmental processes depending on correct Shh signaling have been found altered in both diseases. Besides abnormal signaling, exaggerated activation of microglia and impairment of autophagy and mitophagy occur in both diseases, largely before the appearance of typical pathological signs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology