The Patient-Professional Interaction Questionnaire (PPIQ) to assess patient centered care from the patient's perspective

Giulia Casu, Paola Gremigni, Marinella Sommaruga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To investigate how patients evaluate the provision of patient-centered care (PCC) by healthcare professionals and psychometrically test a questionnaire to assess it. A tool previously developed for self-assessment of professionals' provision of PCC was adapted into a patient-rated form, named Patient-Professional Interaction Questionnaire (PPIQ).

METHODS: A sample of 1139 patients from six hospitals completed the 16-item PPIQ and the questionnaire structure, reliability, susceptibility to social desirability, and associations with other variables were tested.

RESULTS: The PPIQ confirmed the original four-factor structure (effective communication, interest in the patient's agenda, empathy, and patient involvement in care) and showed acceptable reliability and measurement invariance across both in-/out-patients and first/non-first encounter with the evaluated professional. Associations with patients' social desirability were negligible and effective communication was rated the highest among the PPIQ dimensions. PPIQ scores varied according to patients' educational level and type of professional evaluated, while associations between first/non-first encounter and PPIQ scores varied according to in-/out-patient.

CONCLUSION: The PPIQ is a psychometrically sound patient-rated measure of the provision of PCC by healthcare professionals.

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The PPIQ has potential value in promoting quality patient-professional interactions in the hospital setting, as patients' reported experience is an important dimension of the clinician's performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-133
Number of pages8
JournalPatient Education and Counseling
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient-Centered Care/standards
  • Patients/psychology
  • Professional-Patient Relations
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


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