The PD-1/PD-l1 pathway in human pathology

M. Saresella, V. Rainone, N. M. Al-Daghri, M. Clerici, D. Trabattoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


T-cell activation is dependent on signals delivered through the antigen-specific T-cell receptor and accessory receptors on T-cells. Integration of signals through this family of costimulatory and inhibitory receptors and their ligands regulates the balance between T-cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals and exert a vital and diverse range of immunoregulatory roles in T-cell activation, tolerance, and immune-mediated tissue damage. In this review, we revisit current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their involvement in immune-mediated diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259-267
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Molecular Medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Autoimmunity
  • Costimulation
  • HIV infection
  • Immune tolerance
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • PD-1
  • PD-L1
  • T-cell activation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Molecular Medicine


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