The PILRA G78R Variant Correlates with Higher HSV-1-Specific IgG Titers in Alzheimer’s Disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. Interestingly, HSV-1 uses PILRA to infect cells, and HSV-1 infects more efficiently PIRLA G78 compared to R78 macrophages. We analyzed PILRA rs1859788 polymorphism and HSV-1 humoral immune responses in AD (n = 61) and MCI patients (n = 48), and in sex and age matched healthy controls (HC; n = 57). The rs1859788 PILRA genotype distribution was similar among AD, MCI and HC; HSV-1 antibody (Ab) titers were increased in AD and MCI compared to HC (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Notably, HSV-1-specific IgG1 were significantly increased in AD patients carrying PILRA R78 rs1859788 AA than in those carrying G78 AG or GG (p = 0.01 for both comparisons), and the lowest titers of HSV-1-specific IgG1 were observed in rs1859788 GG AD. HSV-1 IgG are increased in AD patients with the protective R78 PILRA genotype. Because in AD patients brain atrophy is inversely correlated with HSV-1-specific IgG titers, results herein suggest a possible link between two important genetic and infective factors suspected to be involved in AD pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCellular and Molecular Neurobiology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2019

Fingerprint

Human Herpesvirus 1
Immunoglobulins
Alzheimer Disease
Immunoglobulin G
Genotype
Cell Surface Receptors
Virus Diseases
Humoral Immunity
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Glycine
Atrophy
Arginine
Cognitive Dysfunction
Macrophages
Pathology

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • HSV-1
  • IgG1
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

@article{df3b3057f27444c7911e2308d2d24be7,
title = "The PILRA G78R Variant Correlates with Higher HSV-1-Specific IgG Titers in Alzheimer’s Disease",
abstract = "Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. Interestingly, HSV-1 uses PILRA to infect cells, and HSV-1 infects more efficiently PIRLA G78 compared to R78 macrophages. We analyzed PILRA rs1859788 polymorphism and HSV-1 humoral immune responses in AD (n = 61) and MCI patients (n = 48), and in sex and age matched healthy controls (HC; n = 57). The rs1859788 PILRA genotype distribution was similar among AD, MCI and HC; HSV-1 antibody (Ab) titers were increased in AD and MCI compared to HC (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Notably, HSV-1-specific IgG1 were significantly increased in AD patients carrying PILRA R78 rs1859788 AA than in those carrying G78 AG or GG (p = 0.01 for both comparisons), and the lowest titers of HSV-1-specific IgG1 were observed in rs1859788 GG AD. HSV-1 IgG are increased in AD patients with the protective R78 PILRA genotype. Because in AD patients brain atrophy is inversely correlated with HSV-1-specific IgG titers, results herein suggest a possible link between two important genetic and infective factors suspected to be involved in AD pathogenesis.",
keywords = "Alzheimer’s disease, HSV-1, IgG1, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA)",
author = "Simone Agostini and Costa, {Andrea Saul} and Roberta Mancuso and Guerini, {Franca Rosa} and Raffaello Nemni and Mario Clerici",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s10571-019-00712-5",
language = "English",
journal = "Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology",
issn = "0272-4340",
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T1 - The PILRA G78R Variant Correlates with Higher HSV-1-Specific IgG Titers in Alzheimer’s Disease

AU - Agostini, Simone

AU - Costa, Andrea Saul

AU - Mancuso, Roberta

AU - Guerini, Franca Rosa

AU - Nemni, Raffaello

AU - Clerici, Mario

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. Interestingly, HSV-1 uses PILRA to infect cells, and HSV-1 infects more efficiently PIRLA G78 compared to R78 macrophages. We analyzed PILRA rs1859788 polymorphism and HSV-1 humoral immune responses in AD (n = 61) and MCI patients (n = 48), and in sex and age matched healthy controls (HC; n = 57). The rs1859788 PILRA genotype distribution was similar among AD, MCI and HC; HSV-1 antibody (Ab) titers were increased in AD and MCI compared to HC (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Notably, HSV-1-specific IgG1 were significantly increased in AD patients carrying PILRA R78 rs1859788 AA than in those carrying G78 AG or GG (p = 0.01 for both comparisons), and the lowest titers of HSV-1-specific IgG1 were observed in rs1859788 GG AD. HSV-1 IgG are increased in AD patients with the protective R78 PILRA genotype. Because in AD patients brain atrophy is inversely correlated with HSV-1-specific IgG titers, results herein suggest a possible link between two important genetic and infective factors suspected to be involved in AD pathogenesis.

AB - Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive performance; Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is instead an objective decline in cognitive performance that does not reach pathology. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA) is a cell surface inhibitory receptor that was recently suggested to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In particular, the arginine-to-glycine substitution in position 78 (R78, rs1859788) was shown to be protective against AD. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is suspected as well to be involved in AD. Interestingly, HSV-1 uses PILRA to infect cells, and HSV-1 infects more efficiently PIRLA G78 compared to R78 macrophages. We analyzed PILRA rs1859788 polymorphism and HSV-1 humoral immune responses in AD (n = 61) and MCI patients (n = 48), and in sex and age matched healthy controls (HC; n = 57). The rs1859788 PILRA genotype distribution was similar among AD, MCI and HC; HSV-1 antibody (Ab) titers were increased in AD and MCI compared to HC (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Notably, HSV-1-specific IgG1 were significantly increased in AD patients carrying PILRA R78 rs1859788 AA than in those carrying G78 AG or GG (p = 0.01 for both comparisons), and the lowest titers of HSV-1-specific IgG1 were observed in rs1859788 GG AD. HSV-1 IgG are increased in AD patients with the protective R78 PILRA genotype. Because in AD patients brain atrophy is inversely correlated with HSV-1-specific IgG titers, results herein suggest a possible link between two important genetic and infective factors suspected to be involved in AD pathogenesis.

KW - Alzheimer’s disease

KW - HSV-1

KW - IgG1

KW - Mild Cognitive Impairment

KW - Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRA)

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