Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder affecting up to 40% of postmenopausal women, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and strength leading to bone fragility and fractures. Despite the available tools for diagnosis and stratification of a fracture risk, bone loss occurs insidiously and osteoporosis is often diagnosed after the first fracture has occurred, with important health-related outcomes. Therefore, the need of markers that could efficiently diagnose bone fragility and osteoporosis is still necessary. Over the past few years, novel studies have focused on miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in many pathological conditions, making them attractive biomarkers. To date, the role of miRNAs in bone disorders remains in great part unclear. In particular, limited and partly conflicting information is available concerning their use as potential biomarkers for osteoporosis, due to differences in patient selection, type of samples, and analytical methods. Despite these limits, concordant information about some specific miRNAs is now arising, making likely their use as additional tools to stratify the risk of osteoporosis and possibly fractures. In this review, we summarize the most relevant studies concerning circulating miRNAs differentially expressed in osteoporotic patients along with their function in bone cells and bone turnover. © 2018 Maria Materozzi et al.