Background: Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome (SLOS; OMIM #270400) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. SLOS is characterized by a plethora of abnormalities involving mainly the brain and the genitalia but also the cardiac, skeletal and gastroenteric system, typical dysmorphic facial features, and variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID). SLOS has a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from multiple congenital malformation syndrome, to mild developmental delay and minor malformations. A large number of mutations have been described in the DHCR7 gene, with few common mutations accounting for the majority of mutated alleles found in patients and a large number of very rare or even private variants. Due to the wide variety of clinical presentations, diagnosis can be difficult, especially in the milder forms of the disorder. Furthermore, establishing a molecular diagnosis can be complicated by finding variants of unknown clinical significance in such cases. Case presentation: We report a case of SLOS at the mild end of the clinical spectrum, presenting with bilateral pelvis ectasia, mild dysmorphic features and mild intellectual disability. The case is compound heterozygous for a known pathogenic mutation (c.724C > T, p.Arg242Cys) and a mutation that has only been reported once in a Portuguese patient (c.521 T > C, p.Phe174Ser) whose pathogenicity has not been yet assessed. We compared the two patients carrying the p.Phe174Ser variant and concluded that this variant is associated with mild forms of SLOS. Conclusion: We report a patient with a mild case of SLOS, highlighting the importance of recognizing subtle anomalies of the genitourinary system, associated with mild dysmorphic features and mild intellectual disability in establishing the diagnosis of mild forms of SLOS. With this report, we confirm the pathogenicity of the p.Phe174Ser variant and we also provide evidence of its association with mild forms of SLOS. This finding further facilitates the establishment of a genotype-phenotype correlation for SLOS. This helps in counselling for this disorder and in predicting therapeutic responses.
- 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase
- Cholesterol metabolism
- Congenital malformation syndrome
- Genotype-phenotype correlation
- Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas