The prognostic performance of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with decreased renal function remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether CACS improves risk stratification by demonstrating incremental value beyond a traditional risk score according to renal function status. 9,563 individuals without known coronary artery disease were enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) was ascertained using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, and was categorized as: ≥90, 60 to 89, and <60. CACS was categorized as 0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, and >400. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), comprising all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and late revascularization (>90 days). Mean age was 55.8 ± 11.5 years (52.8% male). In total, 261 (2.7%) patients experienced MACE over a median follow-up of 24.5 months (interquartile range: 16.9 to 41.1). Incident MACE increased with higher CACS across each eGFR category, with the highest rate observed among patients with CACS >400 and eGFR <60 (95.1 per 1,000 person-years). A CACS >400 increased MACE risk with HR 4.46 (95% CI 1.68 to 11.85), 6.63 (95% CI 4.03 to 10.92), and 6.14 (95% CI 2.85 to 13.21) for eGFR ≥90, 60 to 89, and <60, respectively, as compared with CACS 0. Further, CACS improved discrimination and reclassification beyond Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) (AUC: 0.70 vs 0.64; category free-NRI: 0.51, all p <0.001) for predicting MACE in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR < 90). In conclusion, CACS improved risk stratification and provided incremental value beyond FRS for predicting MACE, irrespective of eGFR status.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine