BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis, like other chronic diseases, is a risk factor for the development of elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in Italian patients with CF and their parents.
METHODS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaires were administered to a sample of patients and their parents recruited at the cystic fibrosis centers in Italy.
RESULTS: Elevated levels of anxiety were higher in mothers than in fathers, and also higher in female patients than in male patients. A correlation between elevated levels of anxiety/depression and geographical area also emerged. Patient anxiety (OR 2.33) and depression (OR 4.09) were significantly associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) <40% and forced vital capacity (FVC) <80% (OR 1.60 and 1.61, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Cystic fibrosis increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression in female patients and in mothers. Geographical differences were observed, with higher anxiety and depression in southern Italy for parents, but not for patients. Anxiety and depression levels also depend on clinical status. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:1311-1319. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Journal Article