Context: The term pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) was coined to describe the clinical condition resulting from end-organ resistance to parathormone (rPTH), caused by genetic and/or epigenetic alterations within or upstream of GNAS. Although knowledge about PHP is growing, there are few data on the prevalence of underlying molecular defects. Objective: The purpose of our study was to ascertain the relative prevalence of PHP-associated molecular defects. Design: With a specially designed questionnaire, we collected data from all patients (n = 407) clinically and molecularly characterized to date by expert referral centers in France, Italy, and Spain. Results: Isolated rPTH (126/407, 31%) was caused only by epigenetic defects, 70% of patients showing loss of imprinting affecting all four GNAS differentially methylated regions and 30% loss of methylation restricted to the GNAS A/B:TSS-DMR. Multihormone resistance with no Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) signs (61/407, 15%) was essentially due to epigenetic defects, although 10% of patients had point mutations. In patients with rPTH and AHO (40/407, 10%), the rate of point mutations was higher (28%) and methylation defects lower (about 70%). In patients with multihormone resistance and AHO (155/407, 38%), all types of molecular defects appeared with different frequencies. Finally, isolated AHO (18/407, 4%) and progressive osseous heteroplasia (7/407, 2%) were exclusively caused by point mutations. Conclusion: With European data, we have established the prevalence of various genetic and epigenetic lesions in PHP-affected patients. Using these findings, we will develop objective criteria to guide cost-effective strategies for genetic testing and explore the implications for management and prognosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical