The Prevalence of Tuberous/Constricted Breast Deformity in Population and in Breast Augmentation and Reduction Mammaplasty Patients

Marco Klinger, Fabio Caviggioli, Silvia Giannasi, Valeria Bandi, Barbara Banzatti, Alessandra Veronesi, Federico Barbera, Luca Maione, Barbara Catania, Valeriano Vinci, Andrea Lisa, Guido Cornegliani, Micol Giaccone, Mattia Siliprandi, Francesco Klinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The exact prevalence of tuberous breast deformity (TBD) has not been properly investigated and still remains undetermined. We report our data about TBD prevalence with the aim of demonstrating its high prevalence. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on preoperative photographs of 1600 Caucasian female patients admitted to our department from January 2009 to July 2014 for augmentation or reduction mammaplasty and other breast clinical conditions. The main features of TBD included a contracted skin envelope, a reduction in breast parenchyma of the lower medial and lateral quadrants, a constricted breast base, abnormal elevation of the inframammary fold, herniation of the breast into the areola with a constricted breast base, and nipple areola complex herniation with a normal breast base. Patients were classified into three groups: breast augmentation group (AUG group), breast reduction group (RED group), and general population group (POP group). Results: Four hundred patients were analyzed for each group (AUG and RED group); 194 patients (48.5 %) and 189 cases (47.3 %), respectively, demonstrated at least one tuberous breast deformity; in 800 patients of the POP group, we found 221 patients (27.6 %) with at least one tuberous breast deformity. Conclusions: Retrospective analysis reveals a high prevalence of TBD in the general population and in particular in women seeking breast augmentation or breast reduction (about 50 %). TBD is characterized by a wide range of clinical features with a spectrum of degrees. Preoperative evaluation is crucial to achieve an optimum outcome and patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence II: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)492-496
Number of pages5
JournalAesthetic Plastic Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Augmentation mammaplasty
  • Constricted breast
  • Prevalence
  • Reduction mammaplasty
  • Stenotic breast
  • Tuberous breast deformity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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