BACKGROUND: In type 2 diabetes, acute hyperglycemia worsens endothelial function and inflammation,while resistance to GLP-1 action occurs. All these phenomena seem to be related to the generation of oxidative stress. A Mediterranean diet, supplemented with olive oil, increases plasma antioxidant capacity, suggesting that its implementation can have a favorable effect on the aforementioned phenomena. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that a Mediterranean diet using olive oil can counteract the effects of acute hyperglycemia and can improve the resistance of the endothelium to GLP-1 action.
METHODS: Two groups of type 2 diabetic patients, each consisting of twelve subjects, participated in a randomized trial for three months, following a Mediterranean diet using olive oil or a control low-fat diet. Plasma antioxidant capacity, endothelial function, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. The effect of GLP-1 during a hyperglycemic clamp, was also studied at baseline and at the end of the study.
RESULTS: Compared to the control diet, the Mediterranean diet increased plasma antioxidant capacity and improved basal endothelial function, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels. The Mediterranean diet also reduced the negative effects of acute hyperglycemia, induced by a hyperglycemic clamp, on endothelial function, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet improved the protective action of GLP-1 on endothelial function, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels, also increasing GLP-1-induced insulin secretion.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the Mediterranean diet, using olive oil, prevents the acute hyperglycemia effect on endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress, and improves the action of GLP-1, which may have a favorable effect on the management of type 2 diabetes, particularly for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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