The ring 14 syndrome: Clinical and molecular definition

Marcella Zollino, Laura Seminara, Daniela Orteschi, Giuseppe Gobbi, Simona Giovannini, Elvio Della Giustina, Daniele Frattini, Angela Scarano, Giovanni Neri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ring 14 (r14) syndrome is a rare condition, whose precise clinical and genetic characterization is still lacking. We analyzed a total of 20 patients with r14 and another 9 patients with a linear 14q deletion. The ring was complete, with no apparent loss of chromosome material, in 6 cases; a terminal 14q deletion, varying in size from 0.65 to 5 Mb, was detected in the remaining 14 cases. Deleted ring chromosomes were 70% paternal and 30% maternal. UPD (14) was never detected. With respect to the linear 14q deletions, three were proximal, varying in size from 4 to 7.2 Mb, and six distal, varying in size from 4.8 to 20 Mb. The majority of the linear deletions were also of paternal origin, and UPD (14) was excluded in all cases. Clinically, the r14 syndrome was characterized by a recognizable phenotype, consisting of shortness of stature, a distinctive facial appearance, microcephaly, scoliosis, and ocular abnormalities, which included abnormal retinal pigmentation, strabismus, glaucoma, and abnormal macula. All patients except one had mental retardation. Drug-resistant epilepsy was another highly consistent finding. Aggressive and hyperactive behavior was noted in about half of the patients. Based on genotype-phenotype correlations, we could deduce that retinal abnormalities, epilepsy, microcephaly, and mental retardation map within the proximal 14q11.2-q12 region. Likewise, behavior disorders and scoliosis could be assigned to the 14q32 region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1116-1124
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2009


  • Chromosome 14 deletions
  • Epilepsy
  • Ring chromosome 14

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics


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