The Role of [18F]Fluciclovine PET/CT in the Characterization of High-Risk Primary Prostate Cancer: Comparison with [11C]Choline PET/CT and Histopathological Analysis

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Abstract

The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the role of [18F]Fluciclovine PET/CT in the characterization of intra-prostatic lesions in high-risk primary PCa patients eligible for radical prostatectomy, in comparison with conventional [11C]Choline PET/CT and validated by prostatectomy pathologic examination. Secondary aims were to determine the performance of PET semi-quantitative parameters (SUVmax; target-to-background ratios [TBRs], using abdominal aorta, bone marrow and liver as backgrounds) for malignant lesion detection (and best cut-off values) and to search predictive factors of malignancy. A six sextants prostate template was created and used by PET readers and pathologists for data comparison and validation. PET visual and semi-quantitative analyses were performed: for instance, patient-based, blinded to histopathology; subsequently lesion-based, un-blinded, according to the pathology reference template. Among 19 patients included (mean age 63 years, 89% high and 11% very-high-risk, mean PSA 9.15 ng/mL), 45 malignant and 31 benign lesions were found and 19 healthy areas were selected (n = 95). For both tracers, the location of the "blinded" prostate SUVmax matched with the lobe of the lesion with the highest pGS in 17/19 cases (89%). There was direct correlation between [18F]Fluciclovine uptake values and pISUP. Overall, lesion-based (n = 95), the performance of PET semiquantitative parameters, with either [18F]Fluciclovine or [11C]Choline, in detecting either malignant/ISUP2-5/ISUP4-5 PCa lesions, was moderate and similar (AUCs ≥ 0.70) but still inadequate (AUCs ≤ 0.81) as a standalone staging procedure. A [18F]Fluciclovine TBR-L3 ≥ 1.5 would depict a clinical significant lesion with a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 68% respectively; whereas a SUVmax cut-off value of 4 would be able to identify a ISUP 4-5 lesion in all cases (sensitivity 100%), although with low specificity (52%). TBRs (especially with threshold significantly higher than aorta and slightly higher than bone marrow), may be complementary to implement malignancy targeting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1575
Number of pages24
JournalCancers
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 29 2021

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