The Role of [18F]Fluciclovine PET/CT in the Characterization of High-Risk Primary Prostate Cancer: Comparison with [11C]Choline PET/CT and Histopathological Analysis

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Abstract

The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the role of [18F]Fluciclovine PET/CT in the characterization of intra-prostatic lesions in high-risk primary PCa patients eligible for radical prostatectomy, in comparison with conventional [11C]Choline PET/CT and validated by prostatectomy pathologic examination. Secondary aims were to determine the performance of PET semi-quantitative parameters (SUVmax; target-to-background ratios [TBRs], using abdominal aorta, bone marrow and liver as backgrounds) for malignant lesion detection (and best cut-off values) and to search predictive factors of malignancy. A six sextants prostate template was created and used by PET readers and pathologists for data comparison and validation. PET visual and semi-quantitative analyses were performed: for instance, patient-based, blinded to histopathology; subsequently lesion-based, un-blinded, according to the pathology reference template. Among 19 patients included (mean age 63 years, 89% high and 11% very-high-risk, mean PSA 9.15 ng/mL), 45 malignant and 31 benign lesions were found and 19 healthy areas were selected (n = 95). For both tracers, the location of the "blinded" prostate SUVmax matched with the lobe of the lesion with the highest pGS in 17/19 cases (89%). There was direct correlation between [18F]Fluciclovine uptake values and pISUP. Overall, lesion-based (n = 95), the performance of PET semiquantitative parameters, with either [18F]Fluciclovine or [11C]Choline, in detecting either malignant/ISUP2-5/ISUP4-5 PCa lesions, was moderate and similar (AUCs ≥ 0.70) but still inadequate (AUCs ≤ 0.81) as a standalone staging procedure. A [18F]Fluciclovine TBR-L3 ≥ 1.5 would depict a clinical significant lesion with a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 68% respectively; whereas a SUVmax cut-off value of 4 would be able to identify a ISUP 4-5 lesion in all cases (sensitivity 100%), although with low specificity (52%). TBRs (especially with threshold significantly higher than aorta and slightly higher than bone marrow), may be complementary to implement malignancy targeting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1575
Number of pages24
JournalCancers
Volume13
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 29 2021

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