The role of amphiregulin in breast cancer

David S. Salomon, Nicola Normanno, Fortunato Ciardiello, Ralf Brandt, Mohammed Shoyab, George J. Todaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Amphiregulin (AR) is an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related peptide that operates exclusively through the EGF receptor and that can bind to heparin. AR also possesses nuclear localization sequences in the extended NH2-terminal region suggesting an additional intracellular site of action. AR mRNA and protein expression have been detected in primary human mammary epithelial cell strains, nontransformed human mammary epithelial cell lines, several human breast cancer cell lines, and primary human breast carcinomas. The frequency and levels of AR protein expression are generally higher in invasive breast carcinomas than in ductal carcinomas in situ or in normal, noninvolved mammary epithelium. In addition, AR can function as an autocrine and/or juxtacrine growth factor in human mammary epithelial cells that have been transformed by an activated c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene or by overexpression of c-erb B-2. AR expression is also enhanced by mammotrophic hormones such as estrogens and other growth factors such as EGF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-114
Number of pages12
JournalBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1995


  • amphiregulin
  • breast tumors
  • EGF receptor
  • oncogenes
  • steroid hormones
  • transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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