The role of endosomal Toll-like receptors in bacterial recognition

C. Biondo, G. Mancuso, C. Beninati, C. Iaria, O. Romeo, A. Cascio, G. Teti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Infections caused by extracellular Gram positive bacteria are still a major health problems. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune responses to these organisms is key to develop pharmacological agents, including vaccines, to control these infections. OBJECTIVE AND PERSPECTIVES: The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of nucleic acid-sensing, intracellular Toll-like receptors in innate immune recognition and in host defenses against extracellular bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 have a major role in inducing host-protective type I interferon responses in conventional dendritic cells in response to streptococci and other extracellular gram positive bacteria. Moreover an as yet unidentified MyD88-dependent receptor is likely responsible for proinflammatory cytokine induction in response to these pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1506-1512
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Endosomes
  • Interferon
  • Nucleic acids
  • Pattern recognition receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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