The role of gender and other factors as predictors of not receiving reperfusion therapy and of outcome in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

Marc Cohen, Gian Franco Gensini, Frans Maritz, Enrique P. Gurfinkel, Kurt Huber, Ari Timerman, Jose Santopinto, Giancarlo Corsini, Pierfranco Terrosu, Florence Joulain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The standard of care for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is prompt coronary reperfusion with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention. Women have higher mortality rates than men following STEMI and fewer women are considered eligible for reperfusion therapy. We analyzed the impact of gender, and other factors, on the outcome and treatment of STEMI in the TETAMI trial and registry. Methods: This exploratory analysis included 2741 patients from Treatment with Enoxaparin and Tirofiban in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TETAMI) presenting with STEMI within 24 hours of symptom onset. The primary composite end point was the combined incidence of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and recurrent angina, at 30 days. Three multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors of not receiving reperfusion therapy, the composite end point, or death. Results: The triple end point occurred in 17.8% of women versus 13.3% of men. Reperfusion therapy was utilized in 38.2% of women versus 47.3% in men. However, age >75 years, delayed presentation, high systolic blood pressure (>100) and region (South Africa), were significant, independent predictors of not receiving reperfusion therapy. Significant predictors of the triple end point included not receiving reperfusion therapy, age >60 years, and higher Killip class. Predictors of death included age > 60 years, low systolic blood pressure, higher Killip class, high heart rate, delayed presentation, and region (South Africa and South America). Conclusion: Female gender was not an independent predictor of outcome or underutilization of reperfusion therapy. Factors more common in female STEMI patients (advanced age and delayed presentation) were associated with not receiving reperfusion therapy and adverse outcome. Increased awareness is needed to reduce delayed presentation after symptom onset, especially among women. Abbreviated abstract: In this an alysis of 2741 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients in the TETAMI trial and registry, a trend was observed for women being less likely to receive reperfusion therapy and more likely to have an adverse outcome than men. This was related to factors more common in female patients (advanced age and delayed presentation), and showed that an increased awareness is needed to reduce delayed presentation after symptom onset, especially among women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-161
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2005

Keywords

  • Gender
  • Reperfusion therapy
  • ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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