The role of gender, psycho-social factors and anthropological-cultural dimensions on pain in neurorehabilitation: Evidence and recommendations from the Italian consensus conference on pain in neurorehabilitation

Anna Maria Aloisi, Vanna Berlincioni, R. Torta, R.E. Nappi, C. Tassorelli, Francesco Barale, Valentina Ieraci, Emanuele Maria Giusti, Giada Pietrabissa, Stefano Tamburin, G.M. Manzoni, G. Castelnuovo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Pain is frequent in patients undergoing neurorehabilitation, but there is a number of still unanswered questions on this topic. The Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) was constituted with the purpose to identify the best practices that can be used in this context. In this article we summarize the existing evidence and recommendations provided by the ICCPNabout the role of gender, psycho-social factors and anthropological-cultural dimensions on pain in neurorehabilitation. Sex, gender, psycho-social variables, anthropological and cultural features may influence pain expression, and its pharmacological and non-pharmacological outcome, but the role of these factors has not been consistently explored in neurorehabilitation. There is a number of psychological factors that can be correlated with or represent a predictor for pain, or may influence the treatment and outcome of neurorehabilitation programs. All these factors should be considered when designing these programs, and future studies should incorporate them as potential covariates that may influence outcome. © 2016 EDIZIONIMINERVAMEDICA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)730-740
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2016



  • Anxiety
  • Catastrophization
  • Depression
  • Gender identity
  • Hormones
  • Rehabilitation

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