Rare cancers are identified as those with an annual incidence of fewer than 6 per 100,000 persons and includes both epithelial and stromal tumors from different anatomical areas. The advancement of analytical methods has produced an accurate molecular characterization of most human cancers, suggesting a “molecular classification” that has allowed the establishment of increasingly personalized therapeutic strategies. However, the limited availability of rare cancer samples has resulted in very few therapeutic options for these tumors, often leading to poor prognosis. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs mostly involved in tumor progression and drug response. In particular, the lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) represents an emergent diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker in many human cancers. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of HOTAIR in rare cancers, proposing it as a new biomarker usable in the management of these tumors.
- Rare cancers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry