The Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Alzheimer's Disease: Conventionally Pathogenetic or Unconventionally Protective?

Maria Cristina Petralia, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Manuela Pennisi, Katia Mangano, Salvo Danilo Lombardo, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Andrea Saraceno, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Sofia Basile

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Abstract

Recent preclinical and clinical observations have offered relevant insights on the etiopathogenesis of late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and upregulated immunoinflammatory events have been described as underlying mechanisms involved in the development of AD. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by several cells of the innate and adaptive immune system, as well as non-immune cells. In the present review, we highlight experimental, genetic, and clinical studies on MIF in rodent models of AD and AD patients, and we discuss emerging therapeutic opportunities for tailored modulation of the activity of MIF, that may potentially be applied to AD patients. Dismantling the exact role of MIF and its receptors in AD may offer novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities in AD.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMolecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Volume25
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 10 2020

Keywords

  • Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/genetics
  • Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/genetics
  • Macrophages
  • Receptors, Immunologic/genetics
  • Rodentia
  • Up-Regulation/immunology

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