The role of natural antibodies to CC chemokine receptor 5 in HIV infection

A Venuti, C Pastori, L Lopalco

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The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for immune and inflammatory responses by mediation of chemotactic activity in leukocytes, although it is expressed on different cell types. It has been shown to act as co-receptor for the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV). Natural reactive antibodies (Abs) recognizing first loop (ECL1) of CCR5 have been detected in several pools of immunoglobulins from healthy donors and from several cohorts of either HIV-exposed but uninfected subjects (ESN) or HIV-infected individuals who control disease progression (LTNP) as well. The reason of development of anti-CCR5 Abs in the absence of autoimmune disease is still unknown; however, the presence of these Abs specific for CCR5 or for other immune receptors and mediators probably is related to homeostasis maintenance. The majority of anti-CCR5 Abs is directed to HIV binding site (N-terminus and ECL2) of the receptor. Conversely, it is well known that ECL1 of CCR5 does not bind HIV; thus, the anti-CCR5 Abs directed to ECL1 elicit a long-lasting internalization of CCR5 but not interfere with HIV binding directly; these Abs block HIV infection in either epithelial cells or CD4 + T lymphocytes and the mechanism differs from those ones described for all other CCR5-specific ligands. The Ab-mediated CCR5 internalization allows the formation of a stable signalosome by interaction of CCR5, β-arrestin2 and ERK1 proteins. The signalosome degradation and the subsequent de novo proteins synthesis determine the CCR5 reappearance on the cell membrane with a very long-lasting kinetics (8 days). The use of monoclonal Abs to CCR5 with particular characteristics and mode of action may represent a novel mode to fight viral infection in either vaccinal or therapeutic strategies. © 2017 Venuti, Pastori and Lopalco.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1358
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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