Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a pleiotropic cytokine released by both immune and non-immune cells in the gut, exerts an important tolerogenic action by promoting regulatory T cell differentiation. TGF-β also enhances enterocyte migration and regulates extracellular matrix turnover, thereby playing a crucial role in tissue remodeling in the gut. In this review we describe the mechanisms by which abnormal TGF-β signaling impairs intestinal immune tolerance and tissue repair, thus predisposing to the onset of immune-mediated bowel disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease. Additionally, we will discuss potential therapeutic strategies aiming at restoring physiologic TGF-β signaling in chronic intestinal diseases.
- Celiac disease
- Crohn's disease
- Regulatory T cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Immunology and Allergy
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)