The Role of Vitamin K in Vascular Calcification

Mario Cozzolino, Maria Fusaro, Paola Ciceri, Lorenzo Gasperoni, Giuseppe Cianciolo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Vascular calcification (VC) is common in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), and associates with increased mortality. Major risk factors for VC in CKD are increasing age, dialysis vintage, and positive net calcium-phosphate balance. To date, no specific therapy that prevents progression or facilitates regression of VC beyond careful attention to calcium and phosphate balance exists. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that CKD patients may incur subclinical vitamin K deficiency. This deficiency may be induced by exhaustion of vitamin K due to its high requirement by vitamin K-dependent proteins to inhibit VC. This review analyzes the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical consequences of vitamin K deficiency with emphasis on its involvement on vascular calcification in CKD and end-stage renal disease and its relationship to the bone-vascular axis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-444
Number of pages8
JournalAdvances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Matrix Gla protein
  • Vascular calcification
  • Vitamin K
  • Warfarin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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