Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ 3, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients.
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