The subtle interplay between gamma delta T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: is there a role for a therapeutic cancer vaccine in the era of combinatorial strategies?

Domenico Galati, Serena Zanotta, Marialuisa Bocchino, Rosaria De Filippi, Antonio Pinto

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Human gamma delta (γδ) T cells represent heterogeneous subsets of unconventional lymphocytes with an HLA-unrestricted target cell recognition. γδ T cells display adaptive clonally restricted specificities coupled to a powerful cytotoxic function against transformed/injured cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are documented to be the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) able to induce adaptive immunity and support the innate immune response independently from T cells. Several data show that the cross-talk of γδ T lymphocytes with DCs can play a crucial role in the orchestration of immune response by bridging innate to adaptive immunity. In the last decade, DCs, as well as γδ T cells, have been of increasing clinical interest, especially as monotherapy for cancer immunotherapy, even though with unpredictable results mainly due to immune suppression and/or tumor-immune escape. For these reasons, new vaccine strategies have to be explored to reach cancer immunotherapy's full potential. The effect of DC-based vaccines on γδ T cell is less extensively investigated, and a combinatorial approach using DC-based vaccines with γδ T cells might promote a strong synergy for long-term tumor control and protection against escaping tumor clones. Here, we discuss the therapeutic potential of the interaction between DCs and γδ T cells to improve cancer vaccination. In particular, we describe the most relevant and updated evidence of such combinatorial approaches, including the use of Zoledronate, Interleukin-15, and protamine RNA, also looking towards future strategies such as CAR therapies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Cancer immunotherapies
  • Combinatorial strategies
  • DC-based vaccines
  • Dendritic cells
  • γδ T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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