The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: Pathophysiology, clinical management and new therapeutic options

Pasquale Esposito, Giovanni Piotti, Stefania Bianzina, Yehuda Malul, Antonio Dal Canton

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Hyponatremia is a marker of different underlying diseases and it can be a cause of morbidity itself; this implies the importance of a correct approach to the problem. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) is one of the most common causes of hyponatremia: it is a disorder of sodium and water balance characterized by urinary dilution impairment and hypotonic hyponatremia, in the absence of renal disease or any identifiable non-osmotic stimulus able to induce antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release; according to its definition, it is diagnosed through an exclusion algorithm. SIAD is usually observed in hospitalized patients and its prevalence may be as high as 35%. The understanding of the syndrome has notably evolved over the last years, as reflected by the significant change in the name, once the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH), today SIAD. This review is up to date and it analyses the newest notions about pathophysiological mechanisms, classification, management and therapy of SIAD, including vaptans.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNephron - Clinical Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011



  • Antidiuretic hormone
  • Hyponatremia
  • Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis
  • Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis
  • Vaptans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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