The synergistic effect of Citrus bergamia and Cynara cardunculus extracts on vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

V. Musolino, M. Gliozzi, E. Bombardelli, S. Nucera, C. Carresi, J. Maiuolo, R. Mollace, S. Paone, F. Bosco, F. Scarano, M. Scicchitano, R. Macrì, S. Ruga, M.C. Zito, E. Palma, S. Gratteri, M. Ragusa, M. Volterrani, M. Fini, V. Mollace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and aim: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) represents a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. NAFLD is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causing an enhancement of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Although insulin resistance appears the link between NAFLD and T2DM, current pharmacological treatments of T2DM failed to produce relevant benefits in preventing T2DM-related liver dysfunction. In this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, we evaluated the effect of Bergacyn, an innovative formulation originating from the combination of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) and Cynara cardunculus (CyC). Experimental procedure: 80 adult patients with a history of at least 12 months of T2DM and NAFLD received orally BPF (300 mg/daily) Cyc (300 mg/daily), separately or formulated in combination 50/50% (Bergacyn; 300 mg/daily), or placebo all containing 300 mg of bergamot albedo fibers micronized and co-grinded as excipients. Results and conclusion: Serum measurements and liver ultrasound analyses showed that concomitant administration of BPF and CyC produced significant improvement of NAFLD biomarkers in patients with T2DM. This effect was associated with a substantial reduction of oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers, thus contributing to a significant improvement of NO-mediated reactive vasodilation. Furthermore, the effect of Bergacyn showed a synergistic effect of both extracts, thus suggesting that this peculiar formulation represents a novel therapeutic strategy to counteract vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in patients suffering from T2DM and NAFLD. Further studies in larger cohort of diabetic patients are required to better identify the potential of Bergacyn on metabolic disorders accompanying T2DM and NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-274
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Volume10
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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