Objectives: Obturation represents the end of the root canal treatment. Clinicians must pay particular attention after the chemio-mechanical cleaning, to obtain an efficient three-dimensional filling of the root canal system. This is the best way to avoid re-infection of root canals and to inhibit the residual replication of bacteria, preventing their nutrition through their "entombment" into the canal system. Materials and methods: In the last years, the Thermafil system has proved to be one of the most predictable and, at the same time, one of the easiest obturation systems for the vertical condensation of warm thermo-plasticized gutta-percha. This has promoted its wide spreading among endodontists, newly graduated and general dental practices. The goal of this review was to evaluate the main benefits and limits of the Thermafil technique for root canal obturation. Results and conclusions: The Thermafil technique is particularly effective for the obturation of long, narrow, and curved root canals, whereas other warm gutta-percha vertical condensation systems are not indicated because of the difficult insertion of spreaders or pluggers to the right depth. In these cases, Thermafil represents an ideal gutta-percha thermoplasticization system, which allows for a correct three-dimensional root canal obturation.
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