The Tower of London (ToL) in Italy: standardization of the ToL test in an Italian population

Maddalena Boccia, Dario Marin, Giovanni D’Antuono, Paola Ciurli, Chiara Incoccia, Gabriella Antonucci, Cecilia Guariglia, Laura Piccardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Deficit in planning and problem-solving, affecting a wide range of neuropsychological patients, has been widely investigated using the Tower of London (ToL) test, as developed by Shallice (Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 298:199–209, 1). The ToL taps on several executive functions (EF), such as planning, time for planning or rule breaks, which may be usefully indexed by different ToL measurements. However, in its original version, the different aspects involved in ToL are not evaluated in a specific way. Here, we report the standardization of the ToL, on 896 individuals aged 15–86 years, taking in account individual factors (i.e. gender, age, years of education) which may affect performances on ToL. We computed several indexes on the ToL including score, planning and execution times, perseverations, rule breaks and self-monitoring. We found that these indexes were affected by individual factors such as gender, age and education. Present results not only provide extensive normative data according to gender, as well as different age and education ranges, but also represent a very useful instrument for a more fine-grained diagnosis of EF deficits in a wide range of neuropsychological patients, including traumatic brain injury and brain-damaged patients, as well as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1263-1270
Number of pages8
JournalNeurological Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2017


  • Executive deficit
  • Frontal lobe
  • Normative data
  • Planning
  • Problem-solving
  • Tower of London

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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