The unleashing of the immune system in COVID-19 and sepsis: the calm before the storm?

Salvatore Bellinvia, Christopher J. Edwards, Matteo Schisano, Paolo Banfi, Matteo Fallico, Paolo Murabito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is sorely testing health care systems and economies around the world and is rightly considered as the major health emergency in a century. Despite the course of the disease appearing to be mild in many cases, a significant proportion of symptomatic patients develop pneumonia requiring hospitalisation or progress to manifest respiratory complications leading to intensive care treatment. Potential interventions for SARS-CoV2-associated pneumonia are being tested, some of which holding promise, but as of today none of these has yet demonstrated outstanding efficacy in treating COVID-19. In this article, we discuss fresh perspectives and insights into the potential role of immune dysregulation in COVID-19 as well as similarities with systemic inflammatory response in sepsis and the rationale for exploring novel treatment options affecting host immune response.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInflammation Research
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - May 1 2020


  • Checkpoint inhibitors
  • Covid-19
  • Cytokine storm
  • Immune dysregulation
  • Inflammatory receptors
  • Sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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