The use of cell conditioned medium for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration.

Francesca Veronesi, Veronica Borsari, Maria Sartori, Monia Orciani, M. Mattioli-Belmonte, Milena Fini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tissue regenerative medicine combines the use of cells, scaffolds, and molecules to repair damaged tissues. Different cell types are employed for musculoskeletal diseases, both differentiated and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In recent years, the hypothesis that cell-based therapy is guided principally by cell-secreted factors has become increasingly popular. The aim of the present literature review was to evaluate preclinical and clinical studies that used conditioned medium (CM), rich in cell-factors, for musculoskeletal regeneration. Thirty-one were in vitro, 12 in vivo studies, 1 was a clinical study, and 2 regarded extracellular vesicles. Both differentiated cells and MSCs produce CM that induces reduction in inflammation and increases synthetic activity. MSC recruitment and differentiation, endothelial cell recruitment and angiogenesis have also been observed. In vivo studies were performed with CM in bone and periodontal defects, arthritis and muscle dystrophy pathologies. The only clinical study was performed with CM from MSCs in patients needing alveolar bone regeneration, showing bone formation and no systemic or local complications. Platelet derived growth factor receptor β, C3a, vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and -3, interleukin 3 and 6, insulin-like growth factor-I were identified as responsible of cell migration, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and angiogenesis. The use of CM could represent a new regenerative treatment in several musculoskeletal pathologies because it overcomes problems associated with the use of cells and avoids the use of exogenous GFs or gene delivery systems. However, some issues remain to be clarified.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cellular Physiology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Nov 2017


  • cell-free strategy
  • clinical study
  • conditioned medium
  • musculoskeletal regeneration
  • preclinical studies


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