The Use of Cyclosporine A in Rheumatology: a 2016 Comprehensive Review

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, exerts an immunomodulator action interfering with T cell activation. Even though novel therapeutic tools have emerged, CyA still represents a suitable option in several clinical rheumatology settings. This is the case of refractory nephritis and cytopenias associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, CyA is a valued therapeutic tool in the management of uveitis and thrombophlebitis in course of Behçet’s disease. Topical CyA has been proven to be beneficial in the dry eye of Sjogren’s syndrome, whereas oral treatment with CyA can be considered for the severe complications of adult onset Still’s disease. CyA provides a therapeutic option in psoriatic arthritis, being rather effective in skin disease. CyA is currently regarded as a second-line option for patients with inflammatory myopathies refractory to standard regimen. CyA is used even in paediatric rheumatology, in particular in the management of juvenile dermatomyositis and macrophage activation syndrome associated with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Importantly, CyA has been shown to suppress the replication of HCV, and it can thus be safely prescribed to those patients with chronic hepatitis C. Noteworthy, CyA can be administered throughout the gestation course. Surely, caution should be paid to CyA safety profile, in particular to its nephrotoxicity. Even though most evidence comes from small and uncontrolled studies with few randomised controlled trials, CyA should be still regarded as a valid therapeutic tool in 2016 rheumatology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-423
Number of pages23
JournalClinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Arthritides
  • Connective tissue diseases
  • Cyclosporine
  • Hepatitis C virus
  • Rheumatology
  • Vasculitides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy


Dive into the research topics of 'The Use of Cyclosporine A in Rheumatology: a 2016 Comprehensive Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this