The use of human immunodeficiency virus resistance tests in clinical practice

F. Ceccherini-Silberstein, V. Cento, V. Calvez, C. F. Perno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Important progress has been made in recent years in the development and clinical use of drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Nevertheless, when antiretroviral therapy fails to be fully suppressive, new viral variants emerge, thus allowing HIV-1 to escape from drug pressure by accumulating mutations. Between 50% and 70% of treated patients with virological rebound harbour some form of drug-resistant virus; transmitted drug resistance in drug-naïve populations has reached 5-20% in areas of the world with access to treatment. The emergence of drug-resistant viruses remains the limiting factor in HIV-1 management, being a major cause of treatment failure, and being associated with clinical progression and death. All international guidelines focus on the importance of tailoring antiretroviral therapy to the individual patient, on the basis onf HIV-1 genetic data, integrated with clinical, laboratory and therapeutic information. The aim of this review is to provide useful information to clinicians and virologists about how and when to use genotypic resistance testing in clinical practice, especially in the management of the first stages of HIV-1 patient care and treatment decisions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1511-1517
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Microbiology and Infection
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


  • Antiretroviral resistance
  • Antiretroviral treatment
  • Clinical practice
  • Genotype
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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